Amphetamine Addiction: Signs, Effects, & Treatment

Stimulant drugs are second only to cannabis as the most widely used class of illicit drug globally, accounting for 68 million past-year consumers. Dependence on amphetamines (AMPH) or methamphetamine (MA) is a growing global concern. A comprehensive assessment of the research literature on pharmacotherapy for AMPH/MA dependence may inform treatment guidelines and future research directions. Adderal withdrawal symptoms often appear a few days after the last dose. Adderall withdrawal typically lasts from three days to several weeks, but you may have lingering psychological symptoms and cravings. Since medical experts can prescribe amphetamines, it’s easy to get into a false sense of security regarding their addictive nature.

Amphetamine Addiction

It also meant that in contrast to the previous review, we were able to consider specific causes of death. Those that were most common were consistent with the known effects of amphetamines, which have been studied in clinical samples and studies using coronial and autopsy data (e.g.7,9). No study we reviewed directly compared outcomes between outpatient- and inpatient-treated participants. Importantly, we did not find any evidence that either treatment setting is superior to another for any of the outcomes we assessed. Hence, we suggest that criteria for the selection of treatment setting are based on clinical judgement and resources. Likewise, significant comorbidity (e.g. psychoses) may impact the ability to remain in ambulatory care during periods of treatment for AMPH/MA withdrawal or treatment.

What Causes Adderall Withdrawal?

In the past, it has been used to treat narcolepsy and to help with weight loss, but this is less common now. It is used to treat some medical conditions, but it is also highly addictive, with a history of abuse. You miss out on or don’t go to as many recreational, social, or work activities because of your amphetamine use. Get the help you need from a therapist near you–a FREE service from Psychology Today. Recovery means different things to different people, according to their experiences, belief systems, culture, identity, and method of recovery. Amphetamine Addiction has devastating social, physical, and mental consequences.

  • The GBD 2017 incorporates vital registration, verbal autopsy, registry, survey, policy, and surveillance data to model mortality estimates for 282 causes of death in 195 countries and territories16.
  • Children and teenagers who have a heart problem may be at risk of sudden death if they use amphetamines.
  • It typically begins within several hours of your last dose and can continue for one or two days.
  • Hence, we suggest that criteria for the selection of treatment setting are based on clinical judgement and resources.
  • Appendix H presents estimated study-level mortality relative risks (RRs) for all-cause and cause-specific RRs, and Appendix H presents pooled estimates of all-cause and cause-specific mortality RRs.

Researchers have found that a combination of two medications is effective at treating meth addiction. Longer-term studies support the efficacy and safety of methylphenidate when taken as prescribed to treat hyperactivity, but more information is needed to evaluate its long-term effects. Amphetamines reduce hunger and increase breathing, heart rate and blood pressure.

How Misuse Contributes to Adderall Withdrawal

Children and teenagers who have a heart problem may be at risk of sudden death if they use amphetamines. These drugs are made illegally, and there is no control over their contents. For this reason, a person can easily consume something they do not expect to consume. People who follow the prescribed, therapeutic dose are unlikely to experience severe adverse effects. From the 1930s, amphetamine was used to treat affective disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and schizophrenia. Symptoms could last between one to three days or up to 10 days after stopping an amphetamine.

Amphetamine Addiction

Of the 38 reporting on study completion rates, the total number of participants randomised was 3733 (92% of the total) and of these, 2298 participants completed the study (61.6%). Forty (93.0%) of these studies were double-blinded [24–45, 47–55, 57–65]. In total, 39 (90.7%) were placebo controlled, while the remaining four studies (9.3%) were designed with a treatment-as-usual or alternate treatment arm as the control [36, 49, 61, 66]. Amphetamines and other stimulant drugs are second only to cannabis as the most widely used class of (illicit) drugs globally, accounting for 68 million past-year consumers [1]. Approximately 29 million people worldwide aged 15–65 years were estimated to have consumed amphetamines in the past year to 2017 [1]. Long-term treatment for amphetamine withdrawal will depend in part on the nature of your amphetamine use.

A Medical Treatment For Meth Addiction Proves Effective In New Study

However, the data we reviewed herein was disparate in respect to the reported outcomes and measures. This prohibited meta-analysis of the literature but allowed for a comprehensive report on the current status of the research. Extra-medical use of AMPH and MA is usually at higher doses than those prescribed orally, and through routes of administration that result in more rapid onset (inhaled, injected intravenously, intra-nasal, per-vaginal, and per-rectal). Extra-medical consumption of amphetamines may be for enjoyment and/or for performance enhancement (such as for night-shift workers to enable longer working hours) [5].

The percentage of abstinence from amphetamines had a range from 40.8% [21] to 58.3% [20] among treated participants at six-month follow-up. A review indicated that the long-term efficacy of behavioral interventions is high in terms of treating substance abuse [26]. Although we endeavoured to be as thorough as possible in searching for studies examining mortality among people using amphetamines, we may have missed studies or made errors. We endeavoured to minimise this through independent checking of screening and data extraction, and then further stages of checking during the analysis and write-up phase by those not involved in extraction and generation of estimates.